In its latest report on the state of the global climate, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) says that temperature, glacier melt, ice sheet formation, sea level rise and CO2 concentrations are all “off the charts.”

It confirms that 2023 was the warmest year on record, with average global temperatures 1.45C above pre-industrial levels – the period before fossil fuel consumption and global warming accelerated.

This calendar year average has already been exceeded for the last 12 consecutive months, when the average exceeded 1.5°C.

World governments committed in 2015 to preventing temperatures from rising by more than 1.5°C in order to slow the pace of warming and climate change.

Antarctic sea ice was at its smallest extent ever last year, missing a chunk the size of France and Germany combined compared to the previous record minimum.

The report also said a tenth of Switzerland’s famous glaciers had disappeared in the past two years as record temperatures led to massive melting.

The rate of sea level rise in the decade ending in 2023 was more than twice as high as in the decade from 1993 to 2002.

Sea temperatures were also remarkable in 2023, the highest since records began 65 years ago.

By the end of 2023, over 90 percent of the ocean had experienced heatwaves at some point during the year.

CO2 levels are 50 percent higher than in the pre-industrial era and store heat in the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise for decades to come.

“The WMO community is sounding a red alert for the world,” said WMO Secretary-General Celeste Saulo.

“What we have experienced in 2023, particularly the unprecedented ocean warming, glacier retreat and sea ice loss in Antarctica, is of particular concern.”

El Nino, a cyclical period of warmer air currents that pushes temperatures higher, contributed to the rise in records being broken.

However, the reports state that “some areas of unusual warming, such as the northeast Atlantic, do not correspond to typical warming patterns associated with El Niño.”

Extreme weather and climate events occurred on all continents, resulting in deaths and major damage.

Extreme rainfall and flooding hit Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Libya in September.

In February and March, one of the world’s longest-lasting tropical cyclones caused devastating damage in Madagascar, Mozambique and Malawi.

India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka suffered one of the most violent cyclones ever recorded in May.

In October, Mexico was hit by a hurricane that became a Category 5 event within hours – one of the fastest storm intensifications ever recorded.

Canada had its worst wildfire season on record, losing 15 million hectares of land, while Hawaii suffered the deadliest wildfire in the U.S. in more than 100 years, with over 100 lives lost.

Severe flooding occurred in many parts of the Horn of Africa, where there were five consecutive droughts.

Europe suffered from extreme events in different ways, with droughts occurring in large parts of Spain and Portugal; Record temperatures in the Mediterranean and heavy rains in the southeast of the continent.

Ireland had its warmest June on record, followed by its wettest July.

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