Peter Navarro, a trade adviser to former President Donald J. Trump, reported to federal prison in Miami on Tuesday, becoming the first senior Trump administration official to face criminal charges for his role in efforts to manipulate the results of the 2020 election punishment served.

Mr. Navarro, 74, who helped shape Mr. Trump’s plans to stay in power after his election defeat in November 2020, was sentenced in January to four months in prison for contempt of Congress after he defied a House special committee subpoena, who investigated the incident in January. 6 riot.

At a hastily organized news conference shortly before he was scheduled to check into the Federal Correctional Institution in Miami, a low-security prison next to the Miami-Dade Zoo, Mr. Navarro repeated familiar accusations against the Justice Department and the Biden administration.

Speaking in the parking lot of a shopping center flanked by a pizzeria and a pawn shop, he blamed the federal judge in his case as well as Mr. Biden and a long list of politicians who he said were motivated by hostility to Mr. Trump.

He added that the “tragedy” of his situation was that he would likely serve his sentence as he continues to appeal his conviction.

“I’m only afraid of one thing,” he told reporters. “I fear for my country because this – what they are doing – will have a chilling effect on every American, regardless of party.”

Sam Mangel, a federal prison consultant who helped Mr. Navarro prepare for his surrender, said he was working to move Mr. Navarro to a unit for inmates over 60 in a minimum-security satellite camp at the prison.

Inmates there share bunk beds in an 80-bed open dormitory with minimal privacy, Mr. Mangel said, adding that given his age, Mr. Navarro hoped to fulfill his prison work requirements by taking a job as a law library clerk or another low-intensity job to be able to position.

The rambling speech, delivered outside a shopping center, was a typically strange finale for Mr. Navarro, whose bravado and idiosyncrasies have been a hallmark of his career.

Mr. Navarro, a Harvard-educated economist, was a harsh critic of China and was a key contributor to Mr. Trump’s protectionist trade policies.

Before joining the Trump administration, Mr. Navarro moved between political parties and then sought office as a Democrat in California always falls short.

In 1992, Mr. Navarro, running on an environmental platform, nearly won the mayoral election in San Diego, using stunts such as swimming a mile to a campaign rally where he was spoke to a crowd in a Speedo. He was a speaker at the 1996 Democratic National Convention, where he campaigned for President Bill Clinton.

Mr. Navarro also turned to science and spent more than two decades as one Professor at the University of California, Irvine. During his studies, he cited a fictional alter ego, often referred to as the “Dark Prince of Disaster,” to provide scathing descriptions of China in his books.

The start of Mr. Navarro’s prison sentence ended a lengthy legal battle that ended in the Supreme Court on Monday as he sought to remain free while he appealed his conviction.

Mr. Navarro had argued that as a former aide working on behalf of the president, his case raised novel legal questions about the separation of powers and the scope of executive privilege.

But the judges were not influenced.

The outcome was in stark contrast to that of another former Trump adviser, Stephen K. Bannon, who was sentenced to an identical prison term on parallel charges but was allowed to remain free by the federal judge overseeing his case.

The House committee sought to question Mr. Navarro in part because he, along with Mr. Bannon, devised a strategy to enlist Republican allies in Congress to delay certification of the election by repeatedly delaying the counting of electoral votes in battleground states question asked. Mr. Navarro openly discussed the plan, nicknamed the “Green Bay Sweep,” in his memoirs and in interviews.

But when the committee asked him for his testimony and documents from that time, Mr. Navarro refused to respond.

During his trial, Mr. Navarro’s lawyers claimed that he assumed Mr. Trump had asserted executive privilege and expected him not to cooperate.

But Mr. Navarro’s lawyers could offer little evidence that Mr. Trump had given instructions to do so.

A lawyer for Mr. Navarro declined to comment on the appeal.

According to the Congressional Research Service, criminal enforcement is a congressional subpoena extremely rare. And as in Mr. Navarro’s case, criminal prosecutions are still failing to secure Congress access to the information they seek, particularly in cases involving the executive branch.

A separate one Civil lawsuit The lawsuit filed by the Justice Department is underway, in which prosecutors have sought to recover hundreds of pages of presidential files that Mr. Navarro refused to turn over to the National Archives and Records Administration after he left office.

The imprisonment of Mr. Navarro differed from the experience of other allies of the former president, who faced legal peril but ultimately faced little consequence.

Mr. Trump’s longtime friend and adviser Roger J. Stone Jr. was sentenced to 40 months in prison after being convicted of obstructing a congressional investigation into Mr. Trump’s 2016 campaign, only for Mr. Trump to do so at the 11th hour filed a penalty.

Michael Flynn, his first national security adviser, pleaded guilty twice to lying to the FBI during the Russia investigation, but the Justice Department abruptly decided to drop the criminal case against him after an extraordinary public campaign by Mr. Trump. In the final months of his presidency, Mr. Trump issued a pardon.

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